Sunday, 3 July 2016


Amazing and important new findings in the search for answers regarding Alzheimer's Disease Thank you Dr Alan MacDonald.

Click on the above to go to the page and read in full or I have copied out below

'New findings by Dr. Alan MacDonald released today on the Dr. Paul H Duray Website (Pathology Research Fellowship)
Earlier Alan MacDonald reported in over 100 Harvard Alzheimer's Brain Bank samples (see F1000 site) that Alzheimer's amyloid plaques are associated with Borrelia biofilms, often with Borrelia miyamotoi a Relapsing Fever Borrelia not picked up with Lyme serology testing.
Then in 2016 Alan showed a high percentage of MS patients had Nematode parasites in their spinal Fluids. (using trichrome stain and Ethidium Bromide blue)
After seeing the nematodes in MS, Alan went back to the Alzheimer's tissue samples and stained for Nematodes. Alan found Nematodes in Alzheimer's brains and that the Nematodes contained Borrelia in their gut.
Then Alan showed that Nematodes shed fecal debris in Alzheimer's brains.
Now using a stain specifically for cytokeratin a protein never found in human brain, Alan found more evidence of both nematodes in Alzheimer's brains and Nematode eggs. The cytokeratin is an excellent stain for Nematodes and this work clinches the observed presence of Nematodes in many Alzheimer's brain samples.
The results were confirmed by others and the samples were screened by Harvard. Below are Alan's brief comments.
Cytokeratin POSITIVE Parasites
Have Never before been reported in Brain.
The rounded structures are actually Eggs of the Nematodes
which have invaded the Alzheimer's autopsy brain.
It couldn't be more clearly presented.
Special thanks to my colleagues at McClain Laboratories who performed quality control on the stains, and did the Immuno-Histochemistries for Cytokeratin immunostains in the Harvard Brain Bank autopsy tissues from five patients with Braak Stage VI Alzheimer's Disease.
( Pathology diagnoses all ratified by Harvard Medical School
Faculty in Neuropathology, and consultants at the
Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center, Belmont, Massachusetts.)
This is a huge Evidentiary Step forward in Alzheimer's Disease
pathobiology. Parasitic Infestations of Human Brain can be treated
with Veterinary type Antiparasitic medications.
A clear superhighway to the solution and to the humane treatment
of Alzheimer's Disease, is now at hand.
All good wishes,

Earlier posts on Alzheimer's can be viewed here 

Dr MacDonald's websites


  1. I believe this was from a poster presentation some years ago of Sapi work.

    Pabbati Namrata M.S., Madari Shilpa B.S., Reddy Raghvendar B.S., Kaur Navroop, M.S., Datar Akshita B.S., Patel Seema B.S., Luecke David B.S., Bien-Aim H. Lubraine B.S., MpoyCedric B.S., Rossi
    Michael Ph.D., Sapi Eva Ph.D.

    Lyme Disease Research Group, Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of New Haven, West Haven CT 06516 USA

    Tick-borne co-infections in Lyme disease patients are of mounting concern because they have been found to increase the severity and duration of acute illness. In the last decade, there were a
    numbers of efforts to identify potential co-infection in Lyme disease patients,with the goal of providing a rational for more specific treatments. Most investigators focused on identifying novel tick- borne bacteria, viruses and fungal infection other than B.burgdoferi in ticks or in patients with a tick bite history.
    Despite all these efforts, there were no improvements in some patients with tick bite history even after they introduced novel treatment protocols. This observation raises an important question as to whether species other than bacteria, virus or fungus could responsible for these chronic problems. Dr. Willy Burgdorfer found 30 microfilarial worms (species was not identified) in one adult Ixodis dammini tick in Shelter Island NY in mid 80s. Based on this single study, we hypothesized that the Ixodes scapularis (deer tick) is a potential vector for filarial parasites and to prove that hypotheses we used cell and
    molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, directs sequencing and in situ hybridization methods.

    First, we amplified filarial nematode specific sequences using different
    filarial nematode genus specific primers such as FL1, FL2, 12s rRNA, ITS (internal transcribed sequences). These PCR results showed four sequences showing high identity with filarial nematode sequences. From these sequences, Onchocerca species showed the closest nucleotide similarity, therefore Onchocerca species-specific primers were used such as OVMSP2 (O. volvulus major sperm protein), NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) and 16s rRNA to confirm the exact species.

    Other techniques such as direct staining of paraffin sections of tick samples and nematode specific in-situ hybridization methods are also utilized to further support the presence of live filarial worms in deer ticks and revealed that larval filarial nematode indeed harbor the gut tissue of deer ticks.
    The significance to this co-infection is that if it is in fact tickborne and transmittable to humans, it could explain why extensive antibiotic treatment for patients with a tick-bite history could fail. The result from these studies could provide a novel therapeutic target for our physicians to explore for those chronically ill patients with tick bite history.

  2. PDF is available from Google Filarial Nematode Infection in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected from ...
    12 May 2014 ... scapularis ticks were collected in Southern Connecticut using the ... infections in Ixodes scapularis using filarial nematode DNA specific in .... novel 12S rDNA primer set was designed and used in Ixodes nymphal tick samples.