Sunday, 24 February 2013


For more than 30 years there has been discussion about whether Lyme Disease can continue into a Late Chronic stage of illness. 

Published in The Open Neurology Journal Volume 6 a series of papers on 

Chronic or Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Present and Future link 

Included in this important series of papers:- 

 Chronic or Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis: 
Analysis of Evidence Compared to Chronic or Late Neurosyphilis, 2012; 6: Pp. 146-157
Judith Miklossy
Published Date: (28 December, 2012)

Whether spirochetes persist in affected host tissues and cause the late/chronic manifestations of neurosyphilis was the subject of long-lasting debate. Detection of Treponema pallidum in the brains of patients with general paresis es-tablished a direct link between persisting infection and tertiary manifestations of neurosyphilis.Today, the same question is in the center of debate with respect to Lyme disease. The goal of this review was to compare the established pathological features of neurosyphilis with those available for Lyme neuroborreliosis. If the main tertiary forms of neurosyphilis also occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis and Borrelia burgdorferi can be detected in brain lesions would indicate that the spirochete is responsible for the neuropsychiatric manifestations of late/chronic Lyme neurobor-reliosis.The substantial amounts of data available in the literature show that the major forms of late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis (meningovascular and meningoencephalitis) are clinically and pathologically confirmed. Borrelia burgdorferi was de-tected in association with tertiary brain lesions and cultivated from the affected brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The accumu-lated data also indicate that Borrelia burgdorferi is able to evade from destruction by the host immune reactions, persist in host tissues and sustain chronic infection and inflammation. These observations represent evidences that Borrelia burgdorferi in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum is responsible for the chronic/late manifestations of Lyme neuroborreliosis.Late Lyme neuroborreliosis is accepted by all existing guidelines in Europe, US and Canada. The terms chronic and late are synonymous and both define tertiary neurosyphilis or tertiary Lyme neuroborreliosis. The use of chronic and late Lymeneuroborreliosis as different entities is inaccurate and can be confusing. Further pathological investigations and the detection of spirochetes in infected tissues and body fluids are strongly needed.

Go to the above links for access to the full PDF and other papers on this subject.

There are many excellent manuscripts guiding present and future research for Lyme disease, such as Brian Fallon at Lyme and Tick-borne Diseases Research Center, Columbia University  here  

Judith Miklossy has worked in the field of Lyme Neuroboreliosis  and the field of Alzheimer's research for some years, her website for links to her work is here 

From Judith's website -

'Highest priority should be given to this emerging field of research. It may have major implications for public health, treatment, and prevention of Alzheimer disease as adequate anti-bacterial drugs are available. Treatment of a bacterial infection may result in regression and, if started early, prevention of the disease. The impact on reducing health-care costs would be substantial. As it was the case for paretic dementia in syphilis, one may prevent and eradicate dementia in Alzheimer disease.'

also links to Prevention Alzheimer International Foundation here

'The goal of the foundation is to support and accelerate this new emerging field of research on Alzheimer's disease and related chronic inflammatory disorders. Some pathogens have been already analyzed and serological and diagnostic tests for their detection are commercially available. Others still need to be characterized in order to detect and eradicate them'

Clearly much work needs to be done and funding is needed urgently, contributions can be sent to Prevention Alzheimer International Foundation details can be found through the above link

Note this is an International tax exempt foundation and research center as they represent the cause of patients Internationally without any frontiers. 

Address postal: Prevention Alzheimer International Foundation
1921 Martigny-Croix, CP 16, CH-1921, Switzerland
Tel: + 41 27 722 0652;
Cell: + 41 79 207 4442                                                    
President Judith Miklossy MD, PhD, DSc 
Banque Cantonale du Valais, 1950 Sion, Switzerland
IBAN: CH71 0076 5001 0105 7880 3,  Account number: 101 057 8803  -  63452

Donations can be transferred to the bank account of the foundation, the online payment will be available later. 

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